114 Allen Building
Box 90042
Durham, North Carolina 27708

Phone: (919) 684-3465
Fax: (919) 681-6280

Overview of the Common Scholarly Procedures.

<<return to Scholarly Procedures page

Scholarly Procedure

Description

In-text
citation*

End-of-text
reference*

Additional
 Requirements

Citing Sources

Method for acknowledging sources of borrowed materials by using in-text citations and end-of-text references.

1) Parenthetical 
citation (with or without signal phrase) OR 2) Footnotes OR 3) Endnotes

Bibliographic

 

Facts or common knowledge

Facts or ideas that are widely known.

NONE REQUIRED

NONE REQUIRED

Same fact can be found in four or more independent sources.

Quotation

Reproduction of an author's exact words.

1) Parenthetical 
citation (with or without signal phrase) OR 2) Footnotes OR 3) Endnotes

Bibliographic

1) Enclose 4 lines or less in quotation marks.
2) Block quote if > 4 lines.
3) Indicate deletions with ellipses  ( . . . ).
4) Indicate additions with sqaure brackets  [ ].
5) Must be loyal to the source.

Paraphrase

Restatement of an author's words that conveys the same meaning.

1) Parenthetical 
citation (with or without signal phrase) OR
2) Footnotes OR 3) Endnotes

Bibliographic

1) Paraphrase is about same length as original passage.
2) "Borrowed" words or terms must be quoted.
3) Must be loyal to the source

Summary

Brief restatement of an author's words that conveys only the author's main point(s).

1) Parenthetical 
citation (with or without signal phrase) OR 2) Footnotes OR 3) Endnotes

Bibliographic

1) Summary is shorter than the original source.
2) "Borrowed" words or terms must be quoted.
3) Must be loyal to the source

*See appropriate style guide (APA, MLA, CSE, Turabian, Chicago, etc.) for content, format, and punctuation.

continue >>