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Scholarly Procedures

There are three common ways of borrowing material from someone else, or using your own work from past assignments, and incorporating that material into your own writing: quotation, paraphrase, and summary. Each assumes that you cite your sources properly (to be discussed below),  Select the appropriate links from this site and use the Scholarly Procedures Table to assist your review of these three scholarly procedures. The Scholarly Procedures Table not only highlights the differences between quotation, paraphrase and summary, but also shows two features that all three have in common: loyalty to the original source and the citing of sources.

Citing Sources. Citing sources (also called documenting sources) is the scholarly procedure for acknowledging that you have borrowed material from someone else and incorporated it into your own work. With one exception, everything you borrow must be cited. Facts or common knowledge need not be cited.

The procedure for citing sources consists of two parts: an in-text citation and an end-of-text reference. The citation informs readers where the borrowed material is located within your written work, and it directs readers to a reference at the end of the text. The reference tells readers where they can find the original source of the borrowed material. The exact contents, format, and punctuation of both the citation and the reference vary from discipline to discipline. Your instructors may recommend or require various style guides to assist you in creating accurate and uniformly formatted citations. Once you have determined which style you are to use, consult the appropriate style guide to obtain the details of the formats to be employed for documentation. For example, suppose your instructor requires that you use APA style, the standard citation format developed by the American Psychological Association. Go to the listing of style guides and select APA. You will see the descriptions of the citation and of the reference to be used in the APA style as well as links to examples.

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